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Orthodontic treatment of an unerupted mandibular canine tooth in a patient with mixed dentition

Dental eruption is a dynamic and complex biological and physiological process that occurs over several years.
The process includes the formation of teeth and their migration in the jaws until their eruption in their final functional position in the dental arches. The age at which the temporary and permanent teeth appear varies markedly among individuals and can be related to several factors, including gender, dentition, socioeconomic status, and height.
Under certain anatomical conditions, trauma or infective processes involving the deciduous teeth can cause alterations of their eruptive process, preventing the permanent tooth from appearing in the oral cavity within the physiological eruption timeframe or causing ectopic positioning. A tooth is considered “impacted” when it fails to erupt in the dental arch within the expected developmental window. Teeth may become impacted because of adjacent teeth, dense overlying bone, excessive soft tissue, or genetic abnormalities. The reported incidence of dental impaction varies between 5.6 and 18.8 %, with a higher frequency among women [1].

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